Vedas are śruti ("what is heard"), distinguishing them from other religious texts, which are called smṛti ("what is remembered"). Just as in the Rigveda, the early sections of Samaveda typically begin with hymns to Agni and Indra but shift to the abstract. [168] Unlike the Samaveda which is almost entirely based on Rigveda mantras and structured as songs, the Yajurveda samhitas are in prose and linguistically, they are different from earlier Vedic texts. Kenneth Zysk (2012), Understanding Mantras (Editor: Harvey Alper), Motilal Banarsidass. [217] The earliest reference to such a "fifth Veda" is found in the Chandogya Upanishad in hymn 7.1.2.[218]. Ralph T. H. Griffith also presented English translations of the four Samhitas, published 1889 to 1899. The oldest part of the Rig Veda Samhita was orally composed in north-western India (Punjab) between c. 1500 and 1200 BC,[note 1] while book 10 of the Rig Veda, and the other Samhitas were composed between 1200-900 BCE more eastward, between the Yamuna and the Ganges, the heartland of Aryavarta and the Kuru Kingdom (c. 1200 – c. 900 BCE). As far as 1500 years is concerned, that date is debated from long time. Ayurveda of the Rigveda, Dhanurveda of the Yajurveda, Gandharveda of the Samveda, and the Sthapatveda of the Atharvaveda are respectively described as the Upvedas of the four Vedas. Hindu society has set women on high a pedestal by establishing them as Goddesses. [24] By reciting them the cosmos is regenerated, "by enlivening and nourishing the forms of creation at their base. 491–499. [119] For Sayana, whether the mantras had meaning depended on the context of their practical usage. Wiman Dissanayake (1993), Self as Body in Asian Theory and Practice (Editors: Thomas P. Kasulis et al), State University of New York Press. The Vedas are the oldest books, so it is natural to name a person or place from the Vedas. Shruti works are considered to have been heard and transmitted by earthly sages, as contrasted to Smriti, or that which is remembered by ordinary human Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. Ahirbudhnya-Samhita I. Shruti (Sruti), the God's word (the cosmic sound of Truth that was once heard): These are the four Vedas: 1. Hindus consider the Vedas to be apauruṣeya, which means "not of a man, superhuman" and "impersonal, authorless," revelations of sacred sounds and texts heard by ancient sages after intense meditation. Griffith's introduction mentions the recension history for his text. [163], The Yajurveda Samhita consists of prose mantras. The central concern of the Upanishads are the connections "between parts of the human organism and cosmic realities. The term "black" implies "the un-arranged, motley collection" of verses in Yajurveda, in contrast to the "white" (well arranged) Yajurveda. The Rig Veda is the first Vedic that is poetic. Krishna has four branches. Whether God's will created it, or whether He was mute; This is reconstructed as being derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *u̯eid-, meaning "see" or "know. The second Veda is the Sama-Veda, a collection of melodies meant to be sung during Hindu sacrifices and offerings, called yajna. The origin of the Vedas can be traced back as far as 1500 BCE, when a large group of nomads called the Aryans, coming from central Asia, crossed the Hindu Kush Mountains, migrating into the Indian subcontinent. Atharva means vibration and Atharva means vibration. Vishva Bandhu, Bhim Dev, S. Bhaskaran Nair (eds.). Shruti Literature. Finally, the meter too is systematically arranged from jagati and tristubh to anustubh and gayatri as the text progresses. Answer: The Vedas are a set of four Hindu holy texts, written about 2,500 years ago. [note 11], While according to Mookerji understanding the meaning (vedarthajnana[89] or artha-bodha[90][note 12]) of the words of the Vedas was part of the Vedic learning,[90] Holdrege and other Indologists[91] have noted that in the transmission of the Samhitas the emphasis is on the phonology of the sounds (śabda) and not on the meaning (artha) of the mantras.